Pig International - January/February 2017 - 34

34 ❙ PigInternational
FERMENTED LIQUID PIG FEED

Microbial and chemical
composition of dry, liquid
and fermented liquid feed
Dry

Liquid

Fermented
liquid

Lactobacteria

4.3

6.8

9.3

Coliforms

3.7

5.3

3

Gross energy (MJ/kg)

18.8

19

19.2

Crude protein (%)

18.6

18.2

19

Lysine (%)

5.6

4.5

4

Starch (%)

45.4

44.9

44.5

Carbohydrates (%)2

66.7

63.7

59.9

Bacteria (log cfu/gram)

Nutrients (in dry matter)

1

conditions will produce feed with a maximum pH value
of 4.5 and very low levels of coliform bacteria. Lower
temperatures favor the development of yeasts and coldresistant coliform bacteria that become increasingly
resilient to low pH.
It should be noted that during the first hours of
fermentation (starting without "seed"), the number of
coliform bacteria actually increase. But, given enough
time, their density drops quickly as the concentration of lactic acid increases to levels that first inhibits
growth and then eliminates coliforms. It is estimated
that it takes at least three days for the fermentation
process to reach stability and be suitable for feeding
to piglets, which are the most sensitive in terms of gut
health.

The reduction in lysine reflects deamination for microbial proliferation in
fermented liquid feed.
2
The reduction in total carbohydrates from fermentation is due to reduced
low-molecular weight sugars and fiber.
Adapted from Canibe et al. (2002).
1

How liquid feeding improves
piglet gut health

www.WATTAgNet.com/
articles/21871

Presented here is a comparison of chemical and
microbiological differences between dry, liquid and
fermented liquid feed.
For the fermentation process to continue, it is imperative that at least 50 percent of fermented feed be used
as "seed" for the next batch of feed. This dictates that
mixing/fermentation tank capacity be at least double of
what is required for one normal feeding episode. These

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To aid the initiation of the fermentation process
and enhance stability, it is often suggested that a starter culture be used during the first three days. This
includes bacteria species beneficial to the fermentation process, such as Lactobacilus alimentarious ,
Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum , usually found as commercial products. Although
such a preparation definitely adds to the strength of
the process, it offers no further benefits once the system reaches stability.

Summing up
In brief, fermenting liquid feed requires a steep
learning curve but can easily become streamlined
once the system reaches stability. The benefits appear
to outmatch the shortcomings, especially in antibioticfree production systems. Nevertheless, fermented
liquid feeding remains an expensive investment that
needs to be balanced against its advantages. ■

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pig International - January/February 2017

Pig International - January/february 2017
Contents
Managing livestock antibiotic resistance with diagnostics
How to quantify health status in farm animals
6 major piglet diarrhea causes and their management
Boosting piglet immunity with colostrum
Practical grinding guidelines for pig feeds
How to train gilts for electronic sow feeding systems
Fermented liquid pig feed benefits outweigh drawbacks
5 new smart farming pig products from EuroTier
VIV Asia 2017 to represent entire animal protein chain
Pigs and Money
Industry Happenings
Products
Marketplace
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Pig International - January/february 2017
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Cover2
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Contents
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Pigs and Money
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Industry Happenings
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 5 new smart farming pig products from EuroTier
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 5
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 6
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 7
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 8
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 9
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Managing livestock antibiotic resistance with diagnostics
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 11
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 12
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 13
Pig International - January/February 2017 - How to quantify health status in farm animals
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 15
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 6 major piglet diarrhea causes and their management
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 17
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Boosting piglet immunity with colostrum
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 19
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 20
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 21
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 22
Pig International - January/February 2017 - VIV Asia 2017 to represent entire animal protein chain
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Practical grinding guidelines for pig feeds
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 25
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 26
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 27
Pig International - January/February 2017 - How to train gilts for electronic sow feeding systems
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 29
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 30
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 31
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Fermented liquid pig feed benefits outweigh drawbacks
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 33
Pig International - January/February 2017 - 34
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Products
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Marketplace
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Cover3
Pig International - January/February 2017 - Cover4
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