Pig International - November 2017 - 28

28 ❙ PigInternational

Debunking trace mineral
myths in animal nutrition
Innovations in trace mineral nutrition, including organic
and hydroxy trace minerals, help maximize animal health
and productivity.
BY KURT PERRYMAN

Mineral premixes can be formulated with a number of sources,
each with advantages and disadvantages. Imprecision is still
common, which is likely attributable to myths related to both
trace mineral requirements and
the trace mineral sources being
fed. So while comprising only a
fraction of the diet composition
and cost, debunking some of the
myths pertaining to trace mineral
nutrition can have immense importance in maximizing animal
health and productive performance in order to generate added
profit for producers.

MYTH 1 Trace mineral
requirements are static
Trace mineral requirements
for production animals have been
investigated for close to 90 years.
These efforts typically used
healthy animals in high-health
environments and resulted in the
publication of static mineral requirements. However, "true" mineral requirements are not static.
While most mineral requirement

sources tend to factor in age,
genetics and reproductive status,
variability is common and likely
related to source solubility, animal
health and the presence of mineral
antagonists. This is especially true
under commercial growth conditions and today's least-cost formulation programs, where dietary
mineral levels are often reduced to
lower production costs.
It is critical to understand the
advantages and disadvantages
of each mineral source, dispelling common myths that classify
minerals as simply inorganic or
organic.
It is logical to hypothesize that
mineral requirements temporarily
increase when an animal is coping with environmental stress or
health challenges. Additionally,
feed intake tends to decrease,
which reduces mineral intake,
thereby compounding the challenge. Another common consequence of a challenge condition is
an increase in oxygen free radicals. An animal's ability to protect
itself from free radicals is critical-

ly dependent
on copper,
zinc and
manganese.
If trace mineral
intake is not able
to meet the higher
demand imposed by
the immune system,
animal performance
will be adversely affected.
In addition to the critical systemic effect on animal health,
supplementing trace minerals at
concentrations above previously
established requirements can support gastrointestinal tract health.
The average swine producer in
the United States feeds over 10
times published trace mineral
requirements to maximize health
and performance. This brings
into question the primary purpose
of establishing trace mineral requirements. Are requirements established to maximize production
performance or solely to avoid
deficiencies in high health animals? Evidence provided by both
modern research and commonly

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pig International - November 2017

Pig International - November 2017
Contents
Pigs and Money
Industry Happenings
What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
World’s top 40 pork processors
World’s top 40 pork producers
5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - BB1
Pig International - November 2017 - BB2
Pig International - November 2017 - Pig International - November 2017
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover2
Pig International - November 2017 - Contents
Pig International - November 2017 - Pigs and Money
Pig International - November 2017 - Industry Happenings
Pig International - November 2017 - What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Pig International - November 2017 - 5
Pig International - November 2017 - 6
Pig International - November 2017 - 7
Pig International - November 2017 - Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Pig International - November 2017 - 9
Pig International - November 2017 - 10
Pig International - November 2017 - 11
Pig International - November 2017 - 12
Pig International - November 2017 - 13
Pig International - November 2017 - Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Pig International - November 2017 - 15
Pig International - November 2017 - 16
Pig International - November 2017 - 17
Pig International - November 2017 - 18
Pig International - November 2017 - 19
Pig International - November 2017 - Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
Pig International - November 2017 - 21
Pig International - November 2017 - 22
Pig International - November 2017 - 23
Pig International - November 2017 - How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Pig International - November 2017 - 25
Pig International - November 2017 - 26
Pig International - November 2017 - 27
Pig International - November 2017 - Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Pig International - November 2017 - 29
Pig International - November 2017 - 30
Pig International - November 2017 - 31
Pig International - November 2017 - Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
Pig International - November 2017 - 33
Pig International - November 2017 - 34
Pig International - November 2017 - 35
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork processors
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork producers
Pig International - November 2017 - 5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Pig International - November 2017 - Products
Pig International - November 2017 - Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover3
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover4
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