Pig International - November 2017 - 30

30 ❙ PigInternational
TRACE MINERAL MYTHS

Solubility of different copper sources at pH 5.5 and 6.5
Copper source

Chemical bond

Classification

pH 5.5

pH 6.5

Copper citrate

Ionic

Organic

61.6b

59.4c

Copper chloride (CuCl2)

Ionic

Inorganic

97.7a

91.8a

Copper sulphate

Ionic

Inorganic

97.0a

87.9b

Copper lysine

Covalent

Organic

59.4b

47.1d

Hydroxy copper (IntelliBond)

Covalent

Inorganic

42.1c

9.4e

-

-

1.3

0.9

SEM
a,b values within the same column with different superscripts are different at P<0.05
Pang and Applegate, 2006

Highly soluble mineral sources are more reactive, which can damage or chelate expensive feed components.
market. These sources were readily
available commodities when mineral
requirements were established, which
provided an easy transition to their
use in animal production. Because
these sources were not developed for
animal feeding, some of their characteristics are not desirable. Metal
oxides have inconsistent bioavailability due to their manufacturing
process. Moreover, sulphate mineral
sources tend to be highly soluble due
to their ionic bonds. This leads to the
rapid release of reactive metal ions
when exposed to water in the feed
or in the animal. The reactivity of
these ions can damage expensive feed
components like fat-soluble vitamins.
Free metal ions can chelate and make
unavailable other feed constituents
like sulphur containing amino acids
or phytate phosphorus. Phosphorus is
one of the most expensive nutrients
supplemented to animal diets and is
required for proper growth and development.
Negative effects of feeding
soluble mineral sources can be com-

pounded when feeding concentrations above the requirement, limiting possible benefits of this feeding
strategy. Animals have adaptive
mechanisms to cope with the rapid
release of high concentrations of
metal ions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. One series of mechanisms
is to both down-regulate metal
transporters while simultaneously
increasing the synthesis of mineral
binding proteins to sequester the
reactive metal ions. While necessary
to protect the animal, mechanisms
like this can negatively affect animal performance and increase mineral excretion into the environment.

MYTH 3 Non-commodity
trace mineral technologies
are cost-prohibitive
Due to their high reactivity, free
metal ions are not typically found
in animal tissues. Instead, they are
almost exclusively bound to small
chaperone proteins. In the 1980s,
companies began developing organic
trace mineral sources to mimic

metal chaperones in direct response
to the limitations of traditional inorganic sources. Organic sources
tend to have stronger covalent
bonds, which reduces solubility and
protects the reactive mineral from
antagonistic interactions in the feed
and animal. The relative bioavailability of these mineral sources
tends to be higher compared with
the commodity inorganic sources.
However, because the production of
organic minerals requires inorganic
trace minerals and expensive protein
feedstocks, the full replacement of
sulphates or oxides remains costprohibitive. 
Not until the development of
hydroxy trace minerals in the mid1990s did it become economically
feasible for the full replacement of
the soluble inorganic trace minerals.
Hydroxy trace minerals have strong
covalent bonds similar to organic
sources but are manufactured from
the combination of hydrochloric
acid, water and a high-purity metal
feedstock under carefully controlled

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pig International - November 2017

Pig International - November 2017
Contents
Pigs and Money
Industry Happenings
What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
World’s top 40 pork processors
World’s top 40 pork producers
5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - BB1
Pig International - November 2017 - BB2
Pig International - November 2017 - Pig International - November 2017
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover2
Pig International - November 2017 - Contents
Pig International - November 2017 - Pigs and Money
Pig International - November 2017 - Industry Happenings
Pig International - November 2017 - What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Pig International - November 2017 - 5
Pig International - November 2017 - 6
Pig International - November 2017 - 7
Pig International - November 2017 - Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Pig International - November 2017 - 9
Pig International - November 2017 - 10
Pig International - November 2017 - 11
Pig International - November 2017 - 12
Pig International - November 2017 - 13
Pig International - November 2017 - Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Pig International - November 2017 - 15
Pig International - November 2017 - 16
Pig International - November 2017 - 17
Pig International - November 2017 - 18
Pig International - November 2017 - 19
Pig International - November 2017 - Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
Pig International - November 2017 - 21
Pig International - November 2017 - 22
Pig International - November 2017 - 23
Pig International - November 2017 - How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Pig International - November 2017 - 25
Pig International - November 2017 - 26
Pig International - November 2017 - 27
Pig International - November 2017 - Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Pig International - November 2017 - 29
Pig International - November 2017 - 30
Pig International - November 2017 - 31
Pig International - November 2017 - Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
Pig International - November 2017 - 33
Pig International - November 2017 - 34
Pig International - November 2017 - 35
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork processors
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork producers
Pig International - November 2017 - 5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Pig International - November 2017 - Products
Pig International - November 2017 - Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover3
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover4
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