Pig International - November 2017 - 33

PigInternational ❙ 33

First, in animals prone to bacterial diarrheas and fed
diets without antibiotics, we require a low-moisture
environment in the upper gastrointestinal tract - otherwise excessive bacterial growth may promote pathogenic strains to the animal's detriment. But, a drier digesta will result most likely in reduced penetration by
digestive enzymes, leading to reduced nutrient digesta.
So, these two aspects work against each other, and one
cannot have both in the same feed formulation design.
Finally, we must ensure water is released in the
large intestine for reabsorption. Otherwise, we will
have incidents of wet litter, leaky diarrhea (non-pathogenic), dirty eggs, loose stool, etc. Thus, diets must be
designed having specific goals and always taking into
account the hygiene levels of each farm before employing the right tools to control digesta moisture levels at
each site of the gastrointestinal tract.

Chemical values
The chemical value of renown remains crude fiber,
but it is now antiquated as we understand it includes but
a small fraction of functional fibers. For example, a feed
high in pectins or highly soluble hemicelluloses is not
likely to figure high in terms of crude fiber as these fractions are not caught up easily during crude fiber analysis.
Other chemi-

cal analyses appear more comprehensive, but they remain
largely irrelevant to monogastric nutrition. Such are NDF
and ADF analyses that were developed to cater for ruminant fiber nutrition. Even though these values will not
change from species to species, like crude fiber, we have
virtually nil data regarding monogastrics. Even, then,
modern fiber thinking is now beyond chemical analyses
as we focus more on biological values. This is not to say
chemical analyses are obsolete, but rather that they have
become a tool in establishing biological values that correspond to each species.

Biological values
In monogastric animal nutrition, we are currently
describing fiber as soluble versus non-soluble (for the
part of the gut that includes the stomach and most of
the small intestine), and fermentable versus non fermentable (for the part that includes the last part of the
small intestine and all of large intestine). It is a common error to believe that all soluble (or non-soluble)
fiber is equally fermentable (or non-fermentable).
Today, we know that this is just not true, at least in
absolute terms when precision is required. It should be
noted here that in order to determine the solubility and
fermentability of an ingredient, we require live animal
tests, something that adds to the delay by which new
data emerge. In-vitro (lab) tests will eventually become
commonplace, but these will always remain more expensive than chemical analyses, and, of course, never
as accurate as in-vivo (live animal) tests. Thus, research focus remains on those species and feeds that
can provide a quick return on investment - such as
feeds for young animals, those raised with antibioticfree diets under challenging conditions and animals
already suffering from gut health problems. At this
moment, there is not a concrete set of feed specifications for these biological values, and, as such, each
nutritionist has to use empirical evidence, at best.

Learn more: 6 fiber insights for formulating livestock feed, www.WATTAgNet.com/articles/30802

November/December 2017 ❙ www.WATTAgNet.com


http://www.WATTAgNet.com/articles/30802 http://www.WATTAgNet.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pig International - November 2017

Pig International - November 2017
Contents
Pigs and Money
Industry Happenings
What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
World’s top 40 pork processors
World’s top 40 pork producers
5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - BB1
Pig International - November 2017 - BB2
Pig International - November 2017 - Pig International - November 2017
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover2
Pig International - November 2017 - Contents
Pig International - November 2017 - Pigs and Money
Pig International - November 2017 - Industry Happenings
Pig International - November 2017 - What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Pig International - November 2017 - 5
Pig International - November 2017 - 6
Pig International - November 2017 - 7
Pig International - November 2017 - Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Pig International - November 2017 - 9
Pig International - November 2017 - 10
Pig International - November 2017 - 11
Pig International - November 2017 - 12
Pig International - November 2017 - 13
Pig International - November 2017 - Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Pig International - November 2017 - 15
Pig International - November 2017 - 16
Pig International - November 2017 - 17
Pig International - November 2017 - 18
Pig International - November 2017 - 19
Pig International - November 2017 - Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
Pig International - November 2017 - 21
Pig International - November 2017 - 22
Pig International - November 2017 - 23
Pig International - November 2017 - How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Pig International - November 2017 - 25
Pig International - November 2017 - 26
Pig International - November 2017 - 27
Pig International - November 2017 - Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Pig International - November 2017 - 29
Pig International - November 2017 - 30
Pig International - November 2017 - 31
Pig International - November 2017 - Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
Pig International - November 2017 - 33
Pig International - November 2017 - 34
Pig International - November 2017 - 35
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork processors
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork producers
Pig International - November 2017 - 5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Pig International - November 2017 - Products
Pig International - November 2017 - Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover3
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover4
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