Pig International - November 2017 - 5

PigInternational ❙ 5

should be taken to confirm the
presence of blood and rule out
parasites. In chronic cases, pigs
can lose weight and have a variable appetite. "The effects are
most dramatic if the ulcer erodes
the mucosa over a blood vessel but
if not, there might not be any obvious symptoms," explained Fran
Baird, pig director at the George
Vet Group. "Unfortunately, it is a
common complaint in pigs; we see
most cases in animals between 26
and 90 kilograms." Gastric hemorrhage can also occur in cases of
bloody gut, but this tends to affect
young gilts and growing pigs.
In sows, similar symptoms occur; as well as dehydration, they
may appear "tucked-up" - holding
themselves in a particular way to
alleviate pain. In acute cases at any
life stage, previously healthy pigs
can be found dead. Due to internal
hemorrhage, their carcasses are
observed to be pale. If the pigs do
survive, they can take a long time
to recover, and sub-clinical effects
in the rest of the herd should be
considered. "Although most commonly a 'grumbling' background
issue in pig herds, it is a significant
cause of mortality, often only diagnosed post mortem," shared Fran.
"If there is a serious problem, mortality can reach 3 to 4 percent, but
usually it sits at about 0.5 percent."

Nutritional causes
It is extremely important to review the feed formulation if a high
incidence of ulcers is reported.
Fiber plays a part, but research

Changes to help prevent gastric ulcers in pigs
Diet

Management

Increase the grist size
(>700 µm) and move from pellets
to a meal if necessary

Ensure consistent access to feed and
water - changing diets gradually

Ensure premixes contain
the recommended level of
vitamins and minerals

Install sufficient feeder and drinkers
for the number of animals in each pen

Check formulation is not too
high in energy, low in protein
or contains too much wheat

Improve biosecurity and disease control

Consider the digestibility of ingredients

Take steps to reduce stress, particularly
during movement or transport

Check raw materials for mycotoxins

Monitor environmental
conditions in the house

Improving both nutritional and management strategies can significantly reduce
the incidence of ulcers.
suggests that simply increasing the
level in the diet, or providing straw
for example, will not completely
fix the problem. Dietary causes for
ulcers include the following:
■ Low zinc
■ Low protein
■ Low fiber
■ Deficient in selenium or vitamin E
■ High iron, copper or calcium
■ High energy
■ High wheat (over 55 percent)
■ High in unsaturated fats
■ Reliance on whey and
skimmed milk
By finely-grinding the raw
materials, even if it is subsequently
pelleted, more cases are seen. This
is due the effect of reducing the
viscosity of the stomach contents.
"You can significantly reduce the
incidence of stomach ulcers by
changing feed presentation," said
Fran. "The grist size is especially
important, which may be harder to
increase if feeding pellets." Some

November/December 2017 ❙ www.WATTAgNet.com

nutritionists use rolled rather than
ground cereals to help alleviate the
problem. It has also been reported
that if cereals are processed with
a high moisture content, there is a
greater incidence of ulcers.

Other influencing factors
Management techniques also
have considerable influence on the
prevalence of ulcers. Overstocking,
movement, mixing and transport
between units can cause stress
in pigs, which increases the
likelihood of ulcers developing.
Uncompassionate stockmanship
or aggression between animals
at any life stage will also cause
undue stress. Anything that means
pigs cannot eat or drink when they
want to has a big impact on the
incidence of ulcers. This may be
because there aren't enough drinkers, trough space is insufficient or
supply of feed is interrupted, perhaps due to mechanical problems.


http://www.WATTAgNet.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pig International - November 2017

Pig International - November 2017
Contents
Pigs and Money
Industry Happenings
What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
World’s top 40 pork processors
World’s top 40 pork producers
5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - BB1
Pig International - November 2017 - BB2
Pig International - November 2017 - Pig International - November 2017
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover2
Pig International - November 2017 - Contents
Pig International - November 2017 - Pigs and Money
Pig International - November 2017 - Industry Happenings
Pig International - November 2017 - What you should know about gastric ulcers in pigs
Pig International - November 2017 - 5
Pig International - November 2017 - 6
Pig International - November 2017 - 7
Pig International - November 2017 - Business, science behind phytogenics in pig feeds
Pig International - November 2017 - 9
Pig International - November 2017 - 10
Pig International - November 2017 - 11
Pig International - November 2017 - 12
Pig International - November 2017 - 13
Pig International - November 2017 - Mastitis in sows: A perennial problem
Pig International - November 2017 - 15
Pig International - November 2017 - 16
Pig International - November 2017 - 17
Pig International - November 2017 - 18
Pig International - November 2017 - 19
Pig International - November 2017 - Understanding chemistry of organic acids in antibiotic-free diets
Pig International - November 2017 - 21
Pig International - November 2017 - 22
Pig International - November 2017 - 23
Pig International - November 2017 - How piglet gastric pH development affects gut health
Pig International - November 2017 - 25
Pig International - November 2017 - 26
Pig International - November 2017 - 27
Pig International - November 2017 - Debunking trace mineral myths in animal nutrition
Pig International - November 2017 - 29
Pig International - November 2017 - 30
Pig International - November 2017 - 31
Pig International - November 2017 - Animal feed formulation: Fiber matrix secrets revealed
Pig International - November 2017 - 33
Pig International - November 2017 - 34
Pig International - November 2017 - 35
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork processors
Pig International - November 2017 - World’s top 40 pork producers
Pig International - November 2017 - 5 programs pig producers don’t want to miss at IPPE 2018
Pig International - November 2017 - Products
Pig International - November 2017 - Advertisers’ Index
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover3
Pig International - November 2017 - Cover4
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